GNU/Linux Desktop Survival Guide
by Graham Williams
'The enjoyment of one's tools is an essential ingredient of successful work.' - Donald E. Knuth
20180528 Welcome to the world of GNU/Linux, which today also includes the world of the Linux Subsystem for Windows, liberating the computing desktop with the freedom of open source. The freedom to do as you want with the software we make available, with very few, if any, restrictions.
The aim of this book is to quickly get you up to speed with GNU/Linux, and to deliver a fun and productive environment. GNU/Linux is a complete and mature operating system that can completely replace Microsoft's Windows on most computers, whilst the Linux Subsystem for Windows is a GNU/Linux subsystem running within Microsoft's Windows/10, providing the full GNU/Linux command line experience (and with some setup the graphical experience). This book guides you through the many different regions of a GNU/Linux system with a focus on getting your desktop environment to do what you want it to do. It is comprehensive with basic support for the user who installs and maintains the system themselves (whether in the home, office, club, or school). It provides insights and step-by-step procedures that deal with specific tasks in setting your system up and maintaining it. The book covers many of the core features of a GNU/Linux system as a replacement for Microsoft's Windows or as a powerful extension to Windows/10. You will gain the knowledge to enjoy and use one of the most comprehensive and useful developments in the history of computing, as well as the most widely used operating system ever (noting that Android runs the GNU/Linux operating system).
The details in this book are presented in the context of Ubuntu GNU/Linux--the most widely used GNU/Linux distribution and based on the most open Debian GNU/Linux distribution. These set the distribution standards for a free (as in liberty) software and collaborative development and user environment. In general the details translate directly to Red Hat and other standard distributions of GNU/Linux. But also, a growing number of the applications (including OpenOffice, AbiWord, The Gimp, Dia and gPhoto, to name just a few) are cross-platform developments and run natively under Microsoft Windows. The chapters that cover these applications in this book will also generally apply to those versions.
The structure of the book is basically alphabetical. Each individual chapter aims to be a standalone reference. The book includes an overview of GNU/Linux and its history, a guide to installing GNU/Linux, introductions to the suite of GNU/Linux desktop productivity tools, and recipes for tuning specific parts of a GNU/Linux system.
The book begins with an introduction to the world of GNU/Linux, Free/Libre Open Source Software (as in liberty or free speech, not price or free beer), and the Free (as in Libre) and Open Source Software movement. We cover computer applications that equal, and often surpass, the commercial offerings of the same or equivalent functionality. The freedom we focus on here is the freedom to choose between the offerings, not the lack of a purchase fee for the software.
In this book we present historical and philosophical perspectives. Chapter 3 briefly reviews GNU/Linux, the various distributions, the licensing issues, and the freedom that GNU/Linux delivers, and the considerable attack on our freedom represented by software patents and the incredible invested interests and wealth behind the push for software patents, which are driven by self interest and greed, rather than concern for humanity.
There are many ways of obtaining GNU/Linux and we only cover the most common approaches. Chapter 4 provides an overview of installing Ubuntu with detailed examples for a number of hardware platforms. We record a selection of actual installations of Debian and Ubuntu in Chapter 42, and these actual examples may be of assistance in installing on your particular computer. Chapter 5 is a brief introduction to some of the essential GNU/Linux utilities that you are likely to come across soon. The Debian packaging system used to manage (and take all of the hard work out of maintaining) packages is described in Chapter 3.4. Once you have completed an install of Ubuntu (which may take an hour or so depending on network connectivity) you will have a system ready to use with all of the applications you have come to expect from a computer. On a more technical level Chapter 46 shows how simple it is to compile your own kernel to suit your hardware requirements, if you wanted or needed to.
The remaining alphabetical chapters cover the Desktop Environment and Ubuntu GNU/Linux administration.
All of the major classes of desktop tools are covered, including word processing, spreadsheets, personal information management, graphics, databases and, of course, games. Also included are chapters covering some of the tools for developers, including emacs and glade. The aim is to set you well on the road to using these tools at a level that is sufficient for many users. Of course, each tool itself deserves, and often has available for it, a book or extensive manuals.
The administration chapters cover very many different topics that let you tune your GNU/Linux system to suit your needs. Not everything here is relevant to everybody, but it brings together many recipes for many of the typical tasks that users sometimes need to know about, again without going into exhaustive detail (which is available elsewhere if you need it or are interested).
So sit back and cherish the liberty of free software and become part of the community that is making computers and the applications they run a benefit to society world wide, rather than a costly privilege.
Conventions Used Throughout The Book
Screen shots from the Firefox web browser are based on Firefox at 700x600.
What's In A Name
The phrase Microsoft Windows (and less informatively just Windows) usually refers to the whole of the popular operating systems, irrespective of which version of Microsoft Windows is being run, unless the version is important. But Microsoft Windows is just one of many windowing systems available, and indeed, Microsoft Windows came on to the screen rather later than the pioneering Apple Macintosh windowing system and the Unix windowing systems. We will simply refer to all varieties of Microsoft's windowing systems (Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP/10) as MS/Windows. If the particular version is important it will be referred to as MS/Windows/10, for example.
We use the phrase GNU/Linux to refer to the GNU environment and the GNU and other applications running in that environment on top of the Linux operating system kernel. Similarly, GNU/Hurd refers to the GNU environment and the GNU and other applications running in that environment on top of the GNU Hurd operating system kernel.
Ubuntu and its underlying base distribution Debian are complete distributions which include many applications based around a particular choice of operating system kernel (usually either GNU/Linux or GNU/Hurd). Where the particular kernel is not important we will refer to whole system as Ubuntu.
The common windowing system used in Ubuntu is a separate, but integral, component that we will refer to as the X Window System.
Through out the document screen shots are presented using a variety of Gnome and KDE themes. The theme specifies what things look like inside the windows that an application displays, and now also tend to specify what the window frame looks like--that is, the area immediately surrounding the application's window. There is an endless variety of themes to suit your own preferences. Some favourites include the E-efm-GTK+ Gnome theme and the QN-X11 and Crux window themes. Refer to the discussion of themes in Chapter 94 for details, if interested.
About This Book
The book is copyright by the author (Graham.Williams@togaware.com). Please feel free to contribute to the book in any way, by sending corrections, comments, updates, suggestions, or even whole new chapters, to me at Graham.Williams@togaware.com.
The following web pages provide links into this book:
Lastly, but by no means least, there are many people to thank.
Many Debian and GNU/Linux folk have contributed directly and indirectly to this book, with snippets from email messages and discussion group postings and directly to me.
Also, financial support for maintenance of the book is always welcome. Financial support is used to contribute toward the costs of running the web pages and the desktop machine used to make this book available. I acknowledge the financial support of many readers.
The following have contributed to the content of the book in one way or another: Damien McAullay started that Chapter on Oracle 10g and others provided suggestions, including Roy Bixler, Mark Bucciarelli, Eduardo Diaz Comellas, Giuseppe Sacco, Oliver Bankel, Daniel Hofstetter, Gopal Mukkamala, and Hans Schou. Damien McAullay provided the initial information on the iPod. John Maindonald helped with understanding R and providing some of the R insights here. Rohinton Kazak fixed many typos. Vincent McIntyre provided information on the installation of the machine I've called vince (). Mikko V. Viinam, Thomas Lester, Raj Nair, Marcelo E. Magallon, Lanny Godsey, Roberto Sanchez, Damien McAullay, Christian Kaske, Yoshiro Mihira, Jason Burrell, Bob Bownes, Peter Lamb, Dirk Eddelbuettel, Dean Jackson, Karsten Self, Shaul Karl, Ethan Benson, John Flinchbaugh, Nathan Norman, Noah L. Meyerhans, Manoj Srivastava, Colin Watson, and many others have provided insights and comments that have been incorporated somewhere in the book. Thanks.
Contributions from the following are acknowledged: Trevor King, Davy Van Dunnegem, Benjamin Trister, Peter van Heerebeek, Robert Bane, Tim O'Donoghue, Paul Molyneux, William Doty, Stephen Tanner, Jan Thomsen, George Munn, Jean-Pierre Delcourt, Roger Bowskill, Gerold Bruns, Markus Gardill, Robert McMann, Michiel Polderman, Randolph Tuttle, Ulf Ove Ergander, JoAnn Manges, Alex MacDonald, Johannes Geursen, Alejandro P Morcate, Robert Mosheim, Mr A Morgan, Robert Hillier, Pedro Araujo, John Henkel, Thomas D Yates, Richard Gambord, Simon Narborough, Roland Sonder, Pascal Dessaux, Graham Dollin, Dave Ottley, Mark Tyler, Matthew Duncan, Asad Altimeemy, Mark Urban, Robert Hendry, Mark Andrews, Tom Rausner, John Edwards, Michael Jogoleff, Thomas Maeder, Stehlik and Company Limited, Terry Gillett, Phil Omega, Alvaro Burgos Rivas, Robert Bane, Margarita Torres, Michael Patterson, James Griffith, Ricardo Benito, Kjeld Kalsboll, Wolfgang Werner, Geoff Potter, Davy Jean, Enio DiCarlo, David Holmes, Yves Guzzoni, Kirill Mackenzie, Richard Monier, Juan Aliaga, Jon Ola Gisnas, Pentti Rasi, Ralph Harrington, Mike Lewis, Slobodan Savic, Olivier Balmat, Paul Reilly, Anthony Eckert, Michael Gonzalez, Matej Lach, Juan C Valido, Isaac Watson, Sandro Cipolat, Rob Lorenzo, Frank Twigg, James R Smith Jr, Razvan Oncioiu, Giorgio Cittadini, Juan Jose Alonso Gamo, Asad Altimeemy, Bruno Delvaux, Kwazen, Edgard Matthijs, Andre Dionne, Gina Spratt, Atte Pakkanen, Lawrence Drexler, Thomas H Pace Jr, Carlos Canizales, David Thomas Butler III, Allan Robert Thompson, David Coles, Joris Verstrepen, Robert Ford, John Gravois, Jose Manuel Garcia Llamas, Michael Moore, Michael Szymendera, Edgar Hoffmann, Hans Georg Krojanski, Theodore Ivanov, Marco A C Menezes, Philippe van Bogaert, Steven Donato, Guy Perrin, C Pettigrew, Frank Hall, John Read, Sheila Polite, James Warren, Tommi Nieminen, Paul King, Rene Gommes, Mike Kranidis, Steven Farrell, Antonio Estrada, Ralph A Werner, William Whitfield, John Barnes, Mr Goble, Clark Thorp, Steven Wheeler, Alain Baeriswyl, Thomas Toner, William Nicholas, Guy Perrin, Jose Miguel Redondo Arandilla, Mark Poler, Krzysztof Zadora, Chris Rock, Tanja Molnar, Jason Graham, Mario Dix, anHarold Prudhomme, Giovanni De Ferrari, Filipe Fonseca, Aveco-Service, Jamie Tew, John Plomondon, Masahisa Fujisaki, Thomas Oettli, Pao Yue-kong Library, Jerome Lioret, Roland Benz, Juan Maria Alberdi, Jerry Novetsky, Joseph Griffith, Proteus Computer Systems, Roland Gerstlauer, Barry Luke, Dacross Services, James Goodwin, Daniel Obrist, Ross Ackland, Charles R Burgess Jr, Red Wing Motor Company, Ghiselli Carlo, Michael Moon, David Clifford, Peter Wilson, Laura Cooper, John Bielefeld, Hans-Jürgen Rudolf, Roger Jensen, Andrzej Prochyra, Lou Cypher, Paivi Nieminen, Peter Osroff, Jagdeep Chand, Donald Charbonneau, Guido Ursoleo, James Farkas, Iain Starks, Margaret Harris, Stefan Ziegenbalg, Michael Vishchers, Rene Van den Broeck, Wade Thunborg, Kenneth Piehl, Myles Keogh, Ronald Emerson, Zachary Taylor, Antonio Rodulfo, Dorene A Gilyard, Wayne Ficke, Kenneth Caldwell, Octonet.biz, Michael Viets, David McQuie, Carpe Diem Global Solutions, Robert De Waal, Steve Wainwright, Martin Bonsoir, Tim W Farrington, Neil Redgate, Rodrigo Athie, Derick Mugambi, Chris Galley, Michael Meeks, Chun-Chee Yiu, Alberto Penaforte, Annette Y Joyce, Fernando Valenzuela, Julian Leslie, Robert March, Linda Arvin, Richard White, Jose de Jesus Rodriguez Limon, Michael Brown, Mona Habib, David Joseph, Rubina Jiwani, James Homuth, Bretzel Enterprises, Michael Davis, Martyn Armitage, Stephen Lord, Michael O'Neill, Arto Keiski, Ted Shen, Robert Stryk, Graham Sheward, Mariarosaria Durevole, Dr Stephen Riley, Richard Chandler, Sean Moore, Luciano Bartoli, Peter Flynn, Carroll Collins, Jim B Belcher, David Bush, Kaj Hansen, Michael Bush, Osman Kemal Kadiroglu, Guido Zijlstra, Declan McLaughlin, James Scanlan, Joseph Lukes, Outi Korpela, Tobias Bo Hansen, John Modeste, Girish Haran, Donald Stevens, Charles Ahrens, Magnus Larsson, Ambrose Andrews, Donald Marshall, David Burgess, M D Dawson, Hayden Armstrong, Tobias Hagberg, James Aiu, Kelleys Computer Services, Mogens Hafsjold, Göran Emilsson, Michael Cooper, Richard Horsley, Robert W Harrington, William Oldham, Asad Hewlett, John Budke, Colin Wantling, Peter Wyckoff, Dimitri Moonen, Charles Catlett, Farimah Fleschute, James Prince Serna, Patrick Frejborg, Arthur E Travis Jr, Konstantinos Papamiltiadis, Prasanna Kumar, Dunham Williams, Marian Radulescu, R Monz, Haukur Matthiasson, Peter Westlake, Paul Vannitsem, Dagur Gunnarsson, Mike Kranidis, College of Engineering at Montana State University, Ernest J Visser, Matthew Reynolds, Jerry Novetsky, Mariano S. Tanenglian, Jr., Robert Milam, and Robert Weggler.
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