GNU/Linux Desktop Survival Guide
by Graham Williams
20200101 Installation examples can provide guidance and confidence. Following are sample installations of GNU/Linux (typically Ubuntu) capturing various aspects of the installation and configuration.
The hardware specifications can be determined from the use of a variety of commands. The command hardinfo peovides a comprehensive graphical interface to every aspect of the system. Command line tools can also be used, including dmesg, dmidecode, lspci and lshw, and files like /proc/cpuinfo. Here are some specific examples:
$ dmesg | grep "DMI:" | cut -c6- | cut -d" " -f 3- # Machine model $ lscpu $ cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'name'| uniq # CPU $ cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep process| wc -l # Number of processors $ wget -qO- https://www.cpubenchmark.net/laptop.html | # PassMark grep i5-8365U | grep '<li' | perl -p -e 's|^.*prdname">||' | # Change CPU string here perl -pe 's|<.*count">| |' | perl -pe 's|<.*||' # Removes the HTML markup $ cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep bogomips # BogoMIPS $ sudo lshw -C memory | egrep '(size|description)' # Memory $ cat /sys/block/nvme0n1/device/model # SSD Disk $ sudo lshw -C network | egrep '(description|product|logical)' # Network $ lspci -k | grep -EA3 'VGA|3D|Display' # Video $ lspci -k | grep -EA3 -i 'audio' # Audio $ dmesg | grep -i input | grep -i touchpad # TouchPad $ uname -r # Kernel
Installation will usually begin by booting the computer from a bootable USB stick containing an image of the Ubuntu system. The required .iso file can be downloaded from https://ubuntu.com. Once downloaded, create a bootable USB using Make Startup Disk, otherwise known as the usb-creator-gtk. The image size for Ubuntu 19.10, for example, is 2.3GB.